Between the Mediterranean and the Pyrenees

Catalonia is a Mediterranean country. Most of the population live along or near the coast – including the city of Barcelona. The coastline is rocky with cliffs in the north and becomes much flatter in the south. Catalan landscape is diverse: there are large inland valleys and plains, and high mountain peaks in the Pyrenees that reach 3,000 metres. There are 18 Natural Parks and specially protected areas such as the Delta de l’Ebro (the Ebro river delta). Because of this diversity, temperatures vary considerably from place to place, especially during the wintertime. Summers are generally hot and dry.

Area 32,107 sq km
Climate Mediterranean
Sunny days per year 300
Coastline 580 km

Highest mountain Pica d’Estats, in the Pyrenees mountain range (3,143 metres)
Main rivers Ter, Llobregat and Ebro, all of which run into the Mediterranean Sea. Garona originates in Val d’Aran and runs into the Atlantic
Important landforms the Cap de Creus headland and the Gulf of Roses to the north, and the Ebro Delta in the south.
Natural Parks 18
Natural protected areas 30.44% of the land area (960,102 land acres and 77,818 marine acres)

Biosphere reserves (recognized as part of UNESCO’s World Network) Terres de l’Ebre and Montseny
Wildlife reserves 96 fauna refuges (12,679 hectares)
Percentages of land usage 61.6% forests, scrubland, fields and grass; 29.1% cultivated land; 6.2% urbanized; 0.6% inland waters; and 2.5% unproductive land (2009, Conselleria de Territori i Sostenibilitat)


Production of primary energy (1,000 toe) 5,974
Primary energy consumption (1,000 toe) 24,297 (0.6% coal; 74.2% oil and petroleum products; 24.6% natural gas; 20.1% nuclear energy; and 7.5% renewable sources and others).
Final energy consumption (1,000 toe) 14,548 (26.9% industry, 41% transport; and 32.1% domestic and others)
Number of nuclear Power Plants 3


Treatment method of municipal waste (kg/inh/year) 193 in landfills, 79 incineration, 141 recycling, 51 composting
Greenhouse gases (Index 1990=100) 124.2 (2011)
Electricity generated from renewable sources 14.8% of gross electricity consumption (2011)

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